Weight cutting is a common practice in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) where fighters lose significant amounts of weight in a short period of time to compete in a weight class lower than their natural weight. Fighters usually cut weight by dehydrating themselves through extreme measures such as saunas, hot baths, and diuretics to lose water weight. The goal is to gain a size and strength advantage over their opponents.
Weight cutting has become a significant issue in MMA due to its potential health risks, including organ failure, severe dehydration, and even death. It has also been linked to long-term health problems such as brain damage, hormonal imbalances, and kidney disease.
The weight class system was introduced to promote fairness and safety in the sport by ensuring that fighters compete against opponents of similar size and weight. However, weight cutting has become so extreme that some fighters end up competing at weights much lower than their natural size, leading to a potential advantage over their opponents.
Weight Cutting in Early Days of MMA
Weight classes in MMA were introduced in the early 2000s as a way to ensure fair competition and minimise the risks associated with extreme weight cutting. Prior to the establishment of weight classes, fighters were often pitted against opponents who had significant size and weight advantages, which could result in serious injury or even death.
The Unified Rules of MMA, which were adopted by most major MMA organisations in the early 2000s, established a system of weight classes ranging from the smallest, the strawweight division (up to 115 pounds), to the largest, the heavyweight division (over 205 pounds). These weight classes provide a level playing field for fighters of similar size and weight, which helps to promote fairness and safety in the sport.
The Modern Era of Weight Cutting in MMA
The emergence of extreme weight cutting in MMA is a relatively recent phenomenon. As the sport became more popular and the competition grew more intense, fighters started seeking any advantage they could find, including cutting drastic amounts of weight to fight in lower weight classes. This trend was especially prevalent in the 2000s and 2010s.
To combat the dangers of extreme weight cutting, regulatory bodies like the UFC and athletic commissions have introduced new rules and regulations. For example, fighters must weigh in at a certain time before the fight to ensure they have enough time to rehydrate before stepping into the ring. In addition, some commissions have implemented weight monitoring programs to track fighters’ weight throughout their training camp.
The UFC and Weight Cutting
The UFC has a long and complicated history with weight cutting. In the early days of the sport, there were no standardised weight classes, and fighters often competed in catchweight fights or fought opponents who were much larger or smaller than them. This lack of regulation led to a number of issues, including the prevalence of extreme weight cutting.
As the sport grew in popularity and became more organised, weight classes were introduced to ensure that fighters were competing against opponents who were of a similar size and weight. However, even with weight classes in place, fighters continued to engage in extreme weight cutting in order to gain a competitive advantage.
To combat these issues, regulatory bodies have introduced rules and regulations aimed at reducing the prevalence of extreme weight cutting. For example, in 2017, the California State Athletic Commission introduced a set of regulations that included weight cutting guidelines, hydration tests, and penalties for fighters who fail to meet the established criteria.
The UFC has played a significant role in promoting these regulations and encouraging fighters to prioritise their health and safety over winning at all costs. The promotion has worked closely with regulatory bodies to ensure that their events are conducted in accordance with these guidelines, and has even gone so far as to cancel fights when fighters fail to meet the established criteria.
While the UFC’s adoption of the California State Athletic Commission’s weight-cutting regulations has been a positive step forward for the sport, there is still much work to be done to ensure the health and safety of fighters. It is up to fighters, coaches, and regulatory bodies to continue to work together to develop and implement effective solutions to the issue of extreme weight cutting in MMA.
Weight Cutting Methods
In order to make weight for a fight, MMA fighters use various methods to cut weight. These methods can range from relatively safe to extremely dangerous and can have long-term health consequences. Some of the most common methods used by fighters to cut weight include:
- Dehydration: One of the most popular and dangerous methods used by fighters to cut weight is dehydration. This involves reducing the amount of water in the body by not drinking water, using saunas or hot baths, or taking diuretics. This method can lead to severe dehydration, kidney failure, and even death.
- Dieting: Fighters may also restrict their calorie intake and consume a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet in the days leading up to the weigh-in. This can lead to malnutrition, decreased energy levels, and weakened immune systems.
- Cutting water weight: Another common method used by fighters is cutting water weight by using diuretics or sitting in a hot bath. This method can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and muscle cramps.
- Sauna suits: Some fighters will wear sauna suits or plastic bags to promote sweating and lose water weight. This method can lead to dehydration, overheating, and heat stroke.
- Laxatives: Some fighters may take laxatives to purge their body of food and water weight. This method can cause gastrointestinal problems, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.
Impact of Weight Cutting on the Performance of MMA Fighters
While weight cutting may provide a temporary size advantage, it can have significant negative impacts on a fighter’s performance and long-term health.
In terms of performance, weight cutting can lead to decreased endurance, strength, and cognitive function. The dehydration process can cause a loss of muscle mass and glycogen stores, leading to decreased endurance and strength. The cognitive function of the fighter can also be negatively impacted due to the stress and fatigue caused by the weight cut.
Biggest Weight Cuts in MMA History
Here are three of the biggest weight cuts in MMA history:
Anthony “Rumble” Johnson – From Heavyweight to Welterweight
Anthony Johnson is perhaps the most well-known case of a massive weight cut in MMA. He initially competed as a heavyweight, where he weighed in at 280 pounds. After a few fights, he decided to cut down to welterweight, which has a limit of 170 pounds. This meant he had to lose 110 pounds to make weight, which he successfully did over the course of a year.
Renan Barao – From Featherweight to Bantamweight
Renan Barao is a former UFC bantamweight champion who used to compete at featherweight, which has a limit of 145 pounds. Barao was known for his massive weight cuts, which would see him shed more than 30 pounds in the days leading up to a fight. In 2014, he attempted to cut down to flyweight, which has a limit of 125 pounds, but failed to make weight.
Yoel Romero – From Heavyweight to Middleweight
Yoel Romero is a former UFC middleweight title challenger who began his MMA career as a heavyweight. After a few fights, he decided to drop down to middleweight, which has a limit of 185 pounds. Romero’s weight cut was so significant that he once weighed in at 185.5 pounds, just half a pound over the limit, but was still deemed too heavy to compete by the New York State Athletic Commission.
The Future of Weight Cutting
As the dangers and risks associated with weight cutting have become more apparent, there have been calls for changes and reforms to the regulations governing weight cutting in MMA. Some possible changes and reforms include:
Changing Weight Classes
One solution to extreme weight cutting could be to increase the number of weight classes or change the weight limits for existing weight classes. This could reduce the incentive for fighters to cut extreme amounts of weight to make weight for their fights.
Another solution that has been implemented in some promotions is early weigh-ins, which take place 24 hours before the fight rather than the day of the fight. This gives fighters more time to rehydrate and recover from the weight cut, reducing the risk of dehydration and other health problems.
Some athletic commissions have introduced hydration testing to measure a fighter’s level of hydration and ensure that they are not dangerously dehydrated before a fight. This can help to prevent extreme weight cutting.
Education and Awareness
Finally, education and awareness about the dangers of weight cutting could be an effective way to reduce the risks. Fighters and coaches could be educated about the risks of extreme weight cutting, as well as the different methods for cutting weight safely.
Proper weight-cutting practices are essential for the safety and well-being of MMA fighters. It is important for fighters, coaches, and officials to understand the risks and work together to implement regulations and guidelines that prioritise the health and safety of the fighters. Education and awareness are also key in reducing the risks of weight cutting. As the sport continues to evolve, it is essential that weight-cutting regulations and practices continue to be reevaluated and adjusted as necessary to ensure the safety and health of all MMA fighters.